(Holy) Trinity, Priory of

(Holy) Trinity, Priory of
   In Aldgate Ward. Shown on Agas' map (Vertue's ed.) "Crychurch."
   The bounds of the Priory are set out in Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 5, commencing at Aldgate, and the site is shown on the O.S.1875.
   From some valuable 16th century plans made by J. Symons, C. 1592, and found among the MSS. at Hatfield House, it appears that the Priory extended from Aldgate east to Heneage Lane west and from a way by the Wall of London north to Algate Street south (Home Counties Magazine, Jan.1900, Vol.11. Pt. 5, pp.48 and 50).
   Founded by Q. Matilda, wife of Henry I., in 1108 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.219) as a house of Augustinian Canons. She gave to the Priory the gate of Aldgate and the soke belonging thereto (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.224). The bounds of this soke are set out by Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 55.
   The soke of the English Knightenguild, or Portsoken, was given to the Priory in 1125 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.219 et seq.) as set out s.v. "Portsoken " and "Portsoken Ward," and in consequence the Prior of Holy Trinity was presented as Alderman of Portsoken Ward until the temp. H. VIII.
   The Priory was dissolved by H. VIII. 1531 (S. 124) and site granted to Sir Thomas Audeley with the rectory and advowson of the parish church of St. Katherine Christeschurch, 25 H. VIII. 1534 (L. and P. H. VIII. D.S. VII. p.232).
   Priory pulled down and house built on site, afterwards called " Duke's Place" (q.v.).
   The whole site was sold to the City by Lord Thomas Howard (Strype. ed. 1720. I. ii. 67).
   Stow tells us that the Priory comprised the site of several old parishes, namely of St. Mary Magdalen, St. Michael, St. Katherine and the Blessed Trinity, united in old time under the name of the Holy Cross or Holy Roode Parish, and that after the foundation of the Priory it was formed into the parish of the Holy Trinitie (S. 142).
   The bull of Pope Innocent, 1137, confirming the foundation, mentions the church of St. Katherine and the chapel of St. Michael in the churchyard of the monastery (Dugdale, VI. 156).
   Called "Holy Trinity Priory" or " Christ Church" interchangeably in early records. .In Matilda's charter of foundation: "Ecclesiam Christi infra muros Lund" (Cal. L. Bk. C. p.224). "Canonicorum Sanctae Trinitatis" (Charter, H. I. Cal. L. Bk. C. pp.73-5); "Ecclesie et canonicis Sancte Trinitatis " (Charter, H. II., quoted Letter Bk. C. p.220; and Stephen's Charter (ib. p.221)). Canons of Christ Church, 1155-62 (Anc. Deeds, A. 6242), and in 1109 (A. 6687). Church of "Holy Trinity de Cristchurche," 1361, also called the " church of Crichurche" (Ct. H. W. II. 38).
   It is noteworthy that this double form of dedication seems to have been in general use in early days: The Cathedral of Christ Church, Canterbury, is also called "Holy Trinity." The Cathedral of Holy Trinity, Dublin, is otherwise "Christchurch" (Cal. of Documents in France, I. p. x.). The old priory church of Christ Church, Hampshire, near Bournemouth, is also called "Holy Trinity," and probably other instances could be cited.
   The Priory of Holy Trinity is often called "Crychurche," "Crichurch," in early records from the contracted form " Xpichurch," written for " Christchurch."
   The church of St. Katherine built in the churchyard of the Priory for the use of the parishioners of Holy Trinity, as shown under Katherine (St.) Creechurch, was also called "'Christeschurch" or " Crichurch," as being situated within the precincts of the Priory, but in early times and until the dissolution of the monasteries the name " Crichurch" as a separate appellation was used to denote the Priory and not the church of St. Katherine.
   It seems possible that the church of Christ Church was in existence at the date of the foundation of the Priory (Matilda's Charter, L. Bk. C. 224) and the Priory church, at least of later times, occupied the site on which the church of St. James', Duke's Place, was erected in 1622 (s.v.), Janies' (St.), Duke's Place.
   The history of the Priory and its possessions is preserved in a cartulary compiled by Thomas de Axebrigge, c. 1425, referred to by Stow as the " Liber Trinitatis," in which transcripts of the original charters quoted above are contained. This cartulary is preserved in the Hunterian Museum at Glasgow, but a transcript of it is in the Guildhall in four volumes, MS. No.122 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. xvi. et seq).
   See St. Mary de Cricherche, Chapel.

A Dictionary of London. . 1918.

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